Sometimes we look at the sky with horror or listen to the earth, waiting for the fall of a giant meteorite or the eruption of a supervolcano. Such cataclysms threaten to change the world forever or wipe humanity off the face of the Earth altogether. Nevertheless, if they had not happened in the past, the planet would have looked very different, and it is unknown what our life would be like today. Let's consider the most obvious examples of cataclysms of the past and present.